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Further Information : Models and Tools

for health and social care professionals to discuss sex and sexuality

PLISSIT which stands for client Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, and Intensive Therapy.

You provide:
permission for the client to discuss their sexual difficulties and problems,
limited information to the best of your ability,
specific suggestions if you have any, and/or refer on for therapy if you agree it's needed.

The Extended PLISSIT Model for Addressing the Sexual Wellbeing of Individuals with an Acquired Disability or Chronic Illness Taylor B & Davis S 2007 Sexuality & Disability, Vol.25, No.3, pp.135-139

Using the Extended PLISSIT Model to Address Sexuality in Primary Care,Taylor B & Davis S 2006 Nursing Standard Vol.21, No.11, pp.35-41

From PLISSIT to Ex-PLISSIT Davis S & Taylor B In Davis S (Ed.) Rehabilitation: The Use of Theories and Models in Practice 2006 Oxford: Elsevier Ltd, Ch.6

Recogition Model A new model to expland on PLISSIT for use with disabled people. It takes a team approach to protect and support the sexual health of service users, drawing on existing skills within the team, and depending on every team member, regardless of role. It encourages positive responce to direct or indirect questions asked by the service user, thereby affirming the relevance and priority he or she may attach to sexual expression.
Couldrick L, Sadlo G, Cross V (2010) Proposing a new sexual health model of practice for use by physical disability teams: The Recognition Model. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation 17 (6) 290-299

Values Workshop A workship origionally created by Victoria Mackenzie at the YAI/National Institute for People with Disabilities in New York and adapted by Dr Tuppy Owens. It is aimed at convincing colleagues, staff and governors to allow clients their own form of sexual expression and not allow personal values and beliefs to get in the way (see Values Workshop).

Holistic common assessment of supportive and palliative care needs for adults with cancer King’s College London was commisioned by the Cancer Action Team to review the most effective way forward in assessment of supportive and palliative care for cancer patients. The report sets out a description of how to develop a unified approach to the assessment and recording of patients' needs. It dictates that we should assess 'sexuality' and relationships at various points in the cancer journey just the same as all other aspects of holistic care. These points are: at diagnosis, before treatment, after treatment, in follow up and at discharge, whether that is through cure or to palliative care (which acknowledges the roll of intimacy at the end of life).

Sexuality after traumatic brain injury This is a workshop to increase awareness of the impact of traumatic brain injury sexuality, increase participants’ awareness of their own attitudes towards sexuality and offers participants useful strategies to enhance the sexual lives of clients and manage difficulties such as disinhibition. It was created by the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Unit at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney. .

Batteries Not Included a sexuality resource pack for working with people with complex communication needs produced by Sense Scotland and Common Knowledge.

Training in sexology for medical and paramedical professionals. A model for the rehabilitation setting 2006 Gianotten WL, Bender J, Post M. Höing M. Sexual and Relationship Therapy 2006;21:303-317

Sex and the 3 Rs: Rights, Responsibilities and Risks - A Sex Education Package for Working with People with Learning Difficulties paperback by Michelle McCarthy and David Thompson 2008
CHANGE In 2012 CHANGE developed innovative ways of teaching people with learning disabilities about sexual health using toolkits, drama and the arts. For more information about the project contact Philipa on 0113 388011 or

Jemma and Jack Talk about Sex aimed at learners with learning disabilities. It is available as a 130 slide PowerPoint presentation, PDF or a spiral bound pack. If purchased as an Education Pack 2, puppets are included (Ethnic origins and sex can be chosen). £90